McMaster University

Michael G. DeGroote
National Pain Centre

Scope of Search

Canadian Guideline for Safe and Effective Use of Opioids for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain

Appendix A-4: Literature Search Strategies

  • (1a) Search strategy
    in MEDLINE
  • (1b) Search
    in EMBASE
  • (2) Searches for
    EMBASE and MEDLINE
  • (3) Search strategy
    in MEDLINE

(1a) Search strategy in MEDLINE

1. randomized controlled trial.pt.
2. controlled clinical trial.pt.
3. Randomized Controlled Trials/
4. Random Allocation/
5. Double-Blind Method/
6. Single-Blind Method/
7. or/1-6
8. Animal/ not Human/
9. 7 not 8
10. clinical trial.pt.
11. explode Clinical Trials/
12. (clinic$ adj25 trial$).tw.
13. ((singl$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj(mask$ or blind$)).tw.
14. Placebos/
15. placebo$.tw.
16. random$.tw.
17. Research Design/
18. (latin adj square).tw.
19. or/10-18
20. 19 not 8
21. 20 not 9
22. Comparative Study/
23. explode Evaluation Studies/
24. Follow-Up Studies/
25. Prospective Studies/
26. (control$ or prospectiv$ or volunteer$).tw.
27. Cross-Over Studies/
28. or/22-27
29. 28 not 8
30. 29 not (9 or 21)
31. 9 or 21 or 30
32. PAIN/pc, dt, rh, th [Prevention & Control, Drug Therapy, Rehabilitation, Therapy]
33. Chronic Disease/dt, pc, rh, th [Drug Therapy, Prevention & Control, Rehabilitation, Therapy]
34. (chronic adj3 pain).mp
35. Low Back Pain/
36. (low adj back adj pain).mp
37. or/ 32-36
38. exp Analgesics, opioid/
39. Codeine.mp.
40. Fentanyl.mp.
41. Hydrocodone.mp.
42. Hydromorphone.mp.
43. Levorphanol.mp.
44. Meperidine.mp.
45. Morphine.mp.
46. Oxycodone.mp.
47. Oxymorphone.mp.
48. Pentazocine.mp.
49. Propoxyphene.mp.
50. Sufentanil.mp.
51. Tramadol.mp
52. or/ 38-51
53. Or/ 39-51
54. 31 and 37 and 53

(1b) Search in EMBASE

1. Randomized Controlled Trial/
2. (random: adj2 control: trial:).mp.
3. 1 or 2
4. control: clinical trial:.mp.
5. (control: adj2 trial:).mp.
6. 4 or 5
7. randomization/
8. random: allocation:.mp.
9. (random: adj2 allocation:).mp.
10. 8 or 9
11. Double Blind Procedure/
12. double-blind method:.mp.
13. Single Blind Procedure/
14. single-blind method:.mp.
15. or/1-14
16. limit 15 to (amphibia or ape or bird or cat or cattle or chicken or dog or "ducks and geese" or fish or "frogs and toads" or goat or guinea pig or "hamsters and gerbils" or horse or monkey or mouse or "pigeons and doves" or "rabbits and hares" or rat or reptile or sheep or swine)
17. exp animal/
18. 15 and 17
19. 16 or 18
20. limit 15 to human
21. 20 not 19
22. Clinical Trial/
23. exp clinical trial/
24. (clinic: adj25 trial:).tw.
25. ((singl: or doubl: or trebl: or tripl:) adj
(mask: or blind:)).tw.
26. PLACEBO/
27. placebo:.mp.
28. random:.tw.
29. methodology/
30. latin square design/
31. (latin adj square).tw.
32. or/22-31
33. 32 not 19
34. Comparative Study/
35. evaluation/
36. follow up/
37. prospective study/
38. (control: or prospectiv: or volunteer:).tw.
39. Crossover Procedure/
40. or/34-39
41. 40 not 19
42. 21 or 33 or 41
43. Pain/pc, rh, dt, th [Prevention, Rehabilitation, Drug Therapy, Therapy]Chronic Disease/pc, rh, dt, th [Prevention, Rehabilitation, Drug Therapy, Therapy]
44. (chronic adj3 pain).mp.
45. Low Back Pain/
46. (low adj back adj pain).mp.
47. or/43-47
48. exp Narcotic Analgesic Agent/
49. Codeine.mp.
50. Fentanyl.mp.
51. Hydromorphone.mp.
52. Levorphanol.mp.
53. Meperidine.mp.
54. Morphine.mp.
55. Oxycodone.mp.
56. Oxymorphone.mp.
57. Pentazocine.mp.
58. Propoxyphene.mp.
59. Tramadol.mp.sufentanil.mp
60. Tramadol.mp
61. or/49-63
62. or/50-63
63. 64 not 65
64. 65 not 49
65. 42 and 48 and 65

(2) Searches for EMBASE and MEDLINE

1. narcotics/
2. exp Analgesics, Opioid/
3. morphine/
4. codeine/
5. fentanyl/
6. hydromorphone.mp.
7. (levorphanol or meperidine or oxymorphone or pentazocine or propoxyphene or sufentanil or tramadol).mp.
8. hydrocodone.mp.
9. tramacet/
10. 57-27-2.rn.
11. oxycodone/
12. 76-42-6.rn.
13. Buprenorphine/
14. prescription opioid$.mp.
15. or/1-14
16. pain/
17. pain clinics/
18. 16 or 17
19. exp Risk Assessment/
20. substance-related disorders/
21. screening.mp.
22. psychoactive effect$.mp.
23. misuse.mp.
24. dependence.mp.
25. abuse liability.mp.
26. risk factor$.mp.
27. urine drug screening.mp.
28. clinical feature$.mp.
29. substance abuse detection/
30. opioid-related disorders/
31. substance abuse detection/
32. crime/
33. drug.mp. and narcotic control/
34. street drugs/
35. substance withdrawal syndrome/
36. methadone/
37. or/19-36
38. 15 and 18 and 37

(3) Search strategy in MEDLINE

1. randomized controlled trial/
2. Random Allocation/
3. Double-Blind Method/
4. Single-Blind Method/
5. Research Design/
6. Comparative Study/
7. exp Evaluation Studies/
8. Follow-Up Studies/
9. Prospective Studies/
10. Cross-Over Studies/
11. or/1-10
12. exp Chronic Disease/pc, dt, th, rh [Prevention& Control, Drug Therapy, Therapy, Rehabilitation]
13. exp Pain/th, rh, dt, pc [Therapy, Rehabilitation, Drug Therapy, Prevention & Control]
14. (chronic adj5 pain).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]
15. exp Analgesics, Opioid/
16. Opioid-Related Disorders/
17. "Quality of Life"/
20. or/12-14
21. or/16-17
22. 11 and 20 and 15 and 21