||For patients with chronic non-cancer pain who are addicted to opioids, three treatment options should be considered: methadone or buprenorphine treatment (Grade A), structured opioid therapy (Grade B), or abstinence-based treatment (Grade C). Consultation or shared care, where available, can assist in selecting and implementing the best treatment option (Grade C).
||Addiction treatment options
||To reduce prescription fraud, physicians should take precautions when issuing prescriptions and work collaboratively with pharmacists (Grade C).
||Be prepared with an approach for dealing with patients who disagree with their opioid prescription or exhibit unacceptable behaviour (Grade C).
||Patient unacceptable behaviour
||Acute or urgent health care facilities should develop policies to provide guidance on prescribing opioids for chronic pain to avoid contributing to opioid misuse or diversion (Grade C).
||Acute care opioid prescribing policy